Sailing Manual

by Paul Kylander

Appendix I

Part I: Basic Land Skills
Skills
Test
Drills
Part II: Basic Sail Theory and Concepts
Skills
Test
Drills
Part III: Practical Sailing Skills
Skills
Test
Drills
Part IV: General Sailing Skills
Skills
Test
Drills

Part I

Skills

Safety
Understand the importance of a PFD.
Describe proper clothing for a day of sailing.
Tie the following knots:
The Figure Eight knot
The Reef knot
The Bow Line
The Clove Hitch
Parts of a sailboat
Name the parts of a sailboat.
Care of Equipment
Care of sails: know how to fold a set of sails.
Care of the boat: know what should always be done and what should never be done to a sailboat.
General care: know what you can do to prolong the life of a sailboat.

Test

1. Who does the certification for PFD's?
2. Name a use for the following knots:

Reef knot
Bowline
Figure of Eight
3. Describe clothing that one should wear on a hot day.
4. Name the parts of a sailboat from figure 10.
5. How should a dinghy be moved while on land?
6. Explain the concept of hypothermia.
7. What two things must be done to a boat that is moored at a dock?
8. Name two things that you can do to prolong the life of a sailboat.

Drills

1. Properly secure a PFD. Tie and name a use for each of the following knots:

Reef knot
Bowline
Figure of Eight
2. Fold and bag a suit of sails (main and jib). Tie the painter of a boat to a dock.

Part II

Skills

Physics of sailing (optional)
Explain the forces which act on a sail.
Explain the forces that act on a centerboard.
Steering and Sail Adjustment
Describe the actions of the tiller to turn either left or right.
Explain what happens when you sheet in a sail.
Terminology of sailing
Introduction to Steering and Sail Adjustment
Letting out the sheets lets out the sail.
Pushing the tiller causes the boat to veer to the left.
Basic Sailing Terminology
Port and Port Tack
Starboard and Starboard Tack
Leeward
Windward
Bow
Stern

Test

1. Draw a diagram of what the air and the resulting forces over the sail look like.
2. Explain drift.
3. Provide two factors that influence drift.
4. What are true, apparent and induced wind?
5. How do you use the mainsheet and the jib sheet to adjust the sail?
6. If the skipper pulls the tiller which way will the sailboat turn?
7. Define the following:

Port
Starboard
Leeward
Stern
8. If a boat bears away from the wind, where is it going?

Drills

1. While the boat is moving forward, turn the direction of the bow to the left.
2. Let the sails out using the sheet.
3. Pick a point on land, use small tiller adjustments to sail directly for that point.

Part III

Skills

Prepare a Sailor for a Day of sailing
Know how to get into a sailboat.
Know the proper position of crew and skipper.
Know steering in further detail.
Rigging a Flying Junior
Know how to rig a Flying Junior.
Leaving a Dock
Must be able to identify and plan appropriate paths for leaving a dock.
Whom is responsible for untying the painter.
Know how to get a sailboat out of irons.
Sailing on Different Points of Sail
Name the five major points of sail.
Provide the degree with respect to irons and the sail position for each point of sail.
Understand the concept of heeling.
Trimming the Sails
Understand the concept of luffing.
Know how to deal with luffing when it occurs.
Tacking
Explain the steps involved with tacking.
Know how to tack a boat.
Gybing
Explain the steps in a gybe.
Know how to gybe a boat.
Man Overboard
Be able to explain the proper procedure in a man overboard situation.
Be able to handle a sailboat alone in moderate winds.
Capsizing
Know how to avoid capsizing.
Be able to explain the steps in a capsizing procedure.
Understand turtling, and how to deal with this situation.
Arriving at a Dock
Must be able to arrive at a dock with appropriate speed.
Know how to arrive in irons at a dock.

Test

1. When the sails are half way out, what point of sail is the boat on?
2. What should you do if the mainsail is luffing on the luff of the sail.
3. What should you be aware of before you leave a dock?
4. During a man overboard procedure, what is the first concern?
5. How many boat lengths (in general) should a sailor turn a boat towards a dock, in order to coast smoothly into it?
6. Tacking is when the ________ crosses into the wind.
7. Gybing is when the ________ crosses into the wind.
8. List the steps involved in righting a capsized boat.
9. Where should the skipper sit in relation to the boom?
10. Why should you always do a controlled gybe when gybing?
11. What should the skipper yell to initiate a tack?

Drills

1. During a non windy day, perform a capsize procedure.
2. Practice the man overboard procedure using a bumper or other floating device.
3. Pick a point directly up wind, practice beating upwind to that point.
4. Practice arriving at a given position in irons.
5. Sail on a set course and practice setting and adjusting the sails.
6. Sail around a given body of water following a triangular shape.

Part IV

Skills

Using Sail Adjustments
Explain general settings of the boom vang, outhaul and downhaul in respect to the wind.
Know how these sail adjustments affect the sail shape.
Weather
Know how to read a weather report.
Identify the weather signals for a storm.
Obligations to Other Craft
Name the seven main right of way rules.
Name a place on the water that you cannot tie onto.
Know the lights required to sail at night.

Test

1. Name the right of way rules.
2. Name an area where small vessels must give way.

Drills

1. Adjust the sails using the sail adjustments for a given day of sailing.
2. Use weather reports to organize for a day of sailing.


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